Trump's visit was his first to Afghanistan since becoming president and came a week after a prisoner swap between Washington and Kabul that has raised hopes for a revival of peace agreement.
Taliban leaders have told Reuters that the group has again been holding meetings with senior U.S. officials in Doha since last weekend, adding they could soon resume formal peace talks.
The Air Force One presidential plane touched down at the sprawling Bagram Airfield with White House national security adviser Robert O'Brien, a small group of aides and Secret Service agents, and a pool of reporters.
Trump met with Afghan President Ashraf Ghani and served turkey to some U.S. troops before sitting down to eat Thanksgiving dinner with them.
He chatted and had his picture taken with some of the U.S. forces deployed there.